Inside the Living Cell: Structure and
Function of Internal Cell Parts
1、 Cytoplasm: The Dynamic, Mobile Factory ( 细胞质:动力工厂 )
Most of the properties we associate with life are properties of the cytoplasm. Much of the mass of a cell consists of this semifluid substance, which is bounded on the outside by the plasma membrane. Organelles are suspended within it, supported by the filamentous network of the cytoskeleton. Dissolved in the cytoplasmic fluid are nutrients, ions, soluble proteins, and other materials needed for cell functioning.
2、The Nucleus: Information Central(细胞核:信息中心)
The eukaryotic cell nucleus is the largest organelle and houses the genetic material (DNA) on chromosomes. (In prokaryotes the hereditary material is found in the nucleoid.) The nucleus also contains one or two organelles-the nucleoli-that play a role in cell division. A pore-perforated sac called the nuclear envelope separates the nucleus and its contents from the cytoplasm. Small molecules can pass through the nuclear envelope, but larger molecules such as mRNA and ribosomes must enter and exit via the pores.
3、Organelles: Specialized Work Units(细胞器:特殊的功能单位)
All eukaryotic cells contain most of the various kinds of organelles, and each organelle performs a specialized function in the cell. Organelles described in this section include ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi complex, vacuoles, lysosomes, mitochondria, and the plastids of plant cells.
The number of ribosomes within a cell may range from a few hundred to many thousands. This quantity reflects the fact that, ribosomes are the sites at which amino acids are assembled into proteins for export or for use in cell processes. A complete ribosome is composed of one larger and one smaller subunit. During protein