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1、 Defining contact pairs in ABAQUS/Standard

After the selection of contact pair surfaces, three key factors must be determined when creating a contact formulation:

⑴ the contact discretization;

⑵ the tracking approach; and

⑶ the assignment of ―master‖ and ―slave‖ roles to the respective surfaces.

1.1the contact discretization

ABAQUS/Standard offers two contact discretization options: a traditional ―node -to-surface‖ discretization and a true ―surface -to-surface‖ discretization.

1.1.1 Node-to-surface contact discretization

Traditional node-to-surface discretization has the following characteristics:

⑴ The slave nodes are constrained not to penetrate into the master surface; however, the nodes of the master surface can, in principle, penetrate into the slave surface

⑵ The contact direction is based on the normal of the master surface.

⑶ The only information needed for the slave surface is the location and surface area

associated with each node; The direction of the slave surface normal and slave surface curvature are not relevant.Thus, the slave surface can be defined as a group of nodes— a node-based surface. ⑷ Node-to-surface discretization is available even if a node-based surface is not used in the

contact pair definition

Fig.1 Node-to-surface contact discretization

1.1.2 Surface-to-surface contact discretization

To stress accuracy, surface-to-surface discretization considers the shape of both the slave and master surfaces in the region of contact constraints.

Surface-to-surface discretization has the following key characteristics:

⑴ Contact conditions are enforced in an average sense over the slave surface, rather than at discrete points (such as at slave nodes, as in the case of node-to-surface discretization). Therefore, some penetration may be observed at individual nodes; however, large, undetected penetrations of master nodes into the slave surface do not occur with this discretization.

⑵ Surface-to-surface discretization is not applicable if a node-based surface is used in the contact pair definition.

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